'Numărul 2' şi 'numărul 3' ai politicii americane - Powell şi Rice - sunt descendenţi ai unor americani de culoare şi primii care au avut acces la funcţii atât de importante. O veritabilă premieră în politica americană - de neconceput doar cu un deceniu în urmă - o constituie faptul că 'numărul 2' şi 'numărul 3' - respectiv secretarul de stat -ministru de externe şi consilierul pe probleme de securitate naţională sunt descendenţi ai unor americani de culoare.Colin Powell, care este mulatru, este şi primul militar de culoare care a ajuns să deţină cea mai înaltă funcţie din armata americană, în timpul primului război din Golf,iar Condoleeza Rice este prima negresă care ocupă la Casa Albă un post ce părea rezervat bărbaţilor de calibrul lui Kissinger sau Brzezinski.
Colin Powell a fost la Bucureşti cu câteva luni în urmă şi a făct senzaţie părăsind brusc o conferinţă de presă de la Cotroceni când a sunat telefonul mobil al unui ziarist, în ciuda faptului că solicitase închiderea acestora.
| Dr. Condoleezza Rice became the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, on January 22, 2001.
In June 1999, she completed a six year tenure as Stanford University’s Provost, during which she was the institution’s chief budget and academic officer. As Provost she was responsible for a $1.5 billion annual budget and the academic program involving 1,400 faculty members and 14,000 students.
As professor of political science, Dr. Rice has been on the Stanford faculty since 1981 and has won two of the highest teaching honors -- the 1984 Walter J. Gores Award for Excellence in Teaching and the 1993 School of Humanities and Sciences Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching.
At Stanford, she has been a member of the Center for International Security and Arms Control, a Senior Fellow of the Institute for International Studies, and a Fellow (by courtesy) of the Hoover Institution. Her books include Germany Unified and Europe Transformed (1995) with Philip Zelikow, The Gorbachev Era (1986) with Alexander Dallin, and Uncertain Allegiance: The Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Army (1984). She also has written numerous articles on Soviet and East European foreign and defense policy, and has addressed audiences in settings ranging from the U.S. Ambassador’s Residence in Moscow to the Commonwealth Club to the 1992 and 2000 Republican National Conventions.
From 1989 through March 1991, the period of German reunification and the final days of the Soviet Union, she served in the Bush Administration as Director, and then Senior Director, of Soviet and East European Affairs in the National Security Council, and a Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. In 1986, while an international affairs fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations, she served as Special Assistant to the Director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In 1997, she served on the Federal Advisory Committee on Gender -- Integrated Training in the Military.
She was a member of the boards of directors for the Chevron Corporation, the Charles Schwab Corporation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the University of Notre Dame, the International Advisory Council of J.P. Morgan and the San Francisco Symphony Board of Governors. She was a Founding Board member of the Center for a New Generation, an educational support fund for schools in East Palo Alto and East Menlo Park, California and was Vice President of the Boys and Girls Club of the Peninsula. In addition, her past board service has encompassed such organizations as Transamerica Corporation, Hewlett Packard, the Carnegie Corporation, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Rand Corporation, the National Council for Soviet and East European Studies, the Mid-Peninsula Urban Coalition and KQED, public broadcasting for San Francisco.
Born November 14, 1954 in Birmingham, Alabama, she earned her bachelor’s degree in political science, cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa, from the University of Denver in 1974; her master’s from the University of Notre Dame in 1975; and her Ph.D. from the Graduate School of International Studies at the University of Denver in 1981. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has been awarded honorary doctorates from Morehouse College in 1991, the University of Alabama in 1994, and the University of Notre Dame in 1995. She resides in Washington, D.C.
Secretary of State
First African American Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Colin L. Powell was born in New York City on April 5, 1937 and graduated from Morris High School in 1954. In 1958 he received a B.S. degree in geology from City College of New York; while in college Powell was very active in the ROTC program and attained the rank of cadet colonel.
Powell began his military career by accepting a second lieutenant's commission in the United States Army. In 1962, he served as a military advisor in South Vietnam and eventually became battalion executive officer and division operations officer in Vietnam in 1968. Returning to the United States, Powell earned an MBA degree from George Washington University in 1971. From 1972 to 1973, he served as assistant to the deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget. In 1973, he became a batallion commander in South Korea. Powell graduated from the National War College in 1976 and became commander of the Second Brigade of the 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. In 1979, he became executive assistant to the Secretary of Energy and senior military assistant to the deputy Secretary of Defense. Powell served as assistant commander of the Fourth Infantry Division, at Fort Carson, Colorado from 1981 to 1983, when he became deputy commander of Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. From 1983 to 1986, he served as military assistant to the Secretary of Defense. Powell went to Germany in 1986 to become commanding general of the Fifth Corps. He became assistant to the President for national security affairs in 1987, leaving this post in 1989 to become chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military command in the United States. From this position, Powell received international recognition as one of the chief architects of the successful 1991 Gulf War against Iraq. Powell retired from the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1993.
Powell wrote his memoir My American Journey and embarked on a nationwide tour in 1995 to promote the book. During the tour, there was widespread speculation that he would become a candidate for President in 1996. However, on November 9, 1995, Powell held a press conference and announced that he would not enter the race as a presidential candidate.
Powell remains active as a lecturer and guest speaker. In 1996, he was named to the board of trustees at Howard University.
During his tenure in the military, Powell was a recipient of several service medals, including the Purple Heart and the Bronze Star (1963), Legion of Merit Award (1969 and 1971), Distinguished Service Medal, Soldiers Medal, and the Secretary's Award (1988). He has received civilian honors as well. In 1993, former President Ronald Reagan presented Powell with the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award. That same year, he received an honorary doctoral degree from Yeshiva University.
January 20, 2001, Powell was swore in by President George W. Bush as Secretary of State.